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What are the main properties of an operating system

What are the main properties of an operating system

An operating System (OS) is an intermediary between users and computer hardware. It provides users an environment in which a user can execute programs conveniently and efficiently. What users really want is an operating system that has an easy-to-use graphical user interface, takes advantage of the power of today’s fast microprocessor chips, and is unencumbered with the burdens of backward compatibility.

Read:-Services of Operating System

What are the main properties of an operating system

Batch processing:-

Batch processing is a technique in which Operating System collects one programs and data together in a batch before processing starts. Operating system does the following activities related to batch processing.

  • OS defines a job which has predefined sequence of commands, programs and data as a single unit.
  • OS keeps a number a jobs in memory and executes them without any manual information.
  • Jobs are processed in the order of submission i.e. first come first served fashion.
  • When job completes its execution, its memory is released and the output for the job gets copied into an output spool for later printing or processing.

What are the main properties of an operating system

OS defines a job which has predefined sequence of commands, programs and data as a single unit.

  • Jobs are processed in the order of submission i.e. first come first served fashion.
  • OS keeps a number a jobs in memory and executes them without any manual information.
  • Increased performance as a new job gets started as soon as the previous job finished without any manual intervention.
  • When job completes its execution, its memory is released and the output for the job gets copied into an output spool for later printing or processing.

Disadvantages:-

  • A job could enter an infinite loop.
  • Difficult to debug program.
  • Due to lack of protection scheme, one batch job can affect pending jobs.

Multitasking:-

Multitasking refers to term where multiple jobs are executed by the CPU simultaneously by switching between them. Switches occur so frequently that the users may interact with each program while it is running.

Operating system does the following activities related to multitasking.

  • The user gives instructions to the operating system or to a program directly, and receives an immediate response.
  • Operating System handles multitasking in the way that it can handle multiple operations /executes multiple programs at a time.
  • These Operating Systems were developed to provide interactive use of a computer system at a reasonable cost.
    Multitasking Operating Systems are also known as Time-sharing systems.
  • Each user has at least one separate program in memory.
  • A time-shared operating system uses concept of CPU scheduling and multiprogramming to provide each user with a small portion of a time-shared CPU.
  • Since interactive I/O typically runs at people speeds, it may take a long time to complete. During this time a CPU can be utilized by another process.
  • Operating system allows the users to share the computer simultaneously. Since each action or command in a time-shared system tends to be short, only a little CPU time is needed for each user.
  • As the system switches CPU rapidly from one user/program to the next, each user is given the impression that he/she has his/her own CPU, whereas actually one CPU is being shared among many users.
  • When a process executes, it typically executes for only a very short time before it either finishes or needs to perform I/O.
  • A program that is loaded into memory and is executing is commonly referred to as a process.

What are the main properties of an operating system

Multi-programming:-

When two or more programs are residing in memory at the same time, then sharing the processor is referred to the multi-programming. Multi-programming assumes a single shared processor. Multiprogramming increases CPU utilization by organizing jobs so that the CPU always has one to execute.

Operating system does the following activities related to multi- programming.

  • The operating system picks and begins to execute one of the jobs in the memory.
  • Multiprogramming operating system monitors the state of all active programs and system resources using memory
  • management programs to ensure that the CPU is never idle unless there are no jobs.
  • This set of jobs is a subset of the jobs kept in the job pool.
  • The operating system keeps several jobs in memory at a time.

Memory layout for a multi-programming system figure:-

What are the main properties of an operating system

Advantages:-

  • User feels that many programs are allotted CPU almost simultaneously.
  • High and efficient CPU utilization.

Disadvantages:-

  • To accommodate many jobs in memory, memory management is required.
  • CPU scheduling is required.

Interactivity:-

Interactivity refers that a User is capable to interact with computer system. Operating system does the following activities related to interactivity.

  • OS provides user an interface to interact with system.
  • OS managers input devices to take inputs from the user. For example, keyboard.
  • OS manages output devices to show outputs to the user. For example, Monitor.
  • OS Response time needs to be short since the user submits and waits for the result.

Real Time System:-

Real time systems represents are usually dedicated embedded systems. Operating system does the following activities related to real time system activity.

  • In such systems, Operating Systems typically read from and react to sensor data.
  • The Operating system must guarantee response to events within fixed periods of time to ensure correct performance.

Distributed Environment:-

Distributed environment refers to multiple independent CPUs or processors in a computer system. Operating system does the following activities related to distributed environment.

  • OS Distributes computation logics among several physical processors.
  • The processors do not share memory or a clock.
  • Instead, each processor has its own local memory.
  • OS manages the communications between the processors. They communicate with each other through various communication lines.

Spooling:-

Spooling is an acronym for simultaneous peripheral operations on line. Spooling refers to putting data of various I/O jobs in a buffer. This buffer is a special area in memory or hard disk which is accessible to I/O devices. Operating system does the following activities related to distributed environment.

  • OS handles I/O device data spooling as devices have different data access rates.
  • OS maintains the spooling buffer which provides a waiting station where data can rest while the slower device catches up.
  • OS maintains parallel computation because of spooling process as a computer can perform I/O in parallel fashion. It becomes possible to have the computer read data from a tape, write data to disk and to write out to a tape printer while it is doing its computing task.

What are the main properties of an operating system

Advantages:-

  • The spooling operation uses a disk as a very large buffer.
  • Spooling is capable of overlapping I/O operation for one job with processor operations for another job.

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