Network interface cards (nic):- The most basic of network connectivity devices is the network interface card , also called a network adapter. A NIC, which is pronounced as “nick,” is the device that is installed in every PC or peripheral device to attach it to the network cabling and to connect it to the network operating system and protocols. The primary purpose of the NIC is to transmit and receive data to and from other NIC. The card into the system bus structures. An expansion slot contains metallic, typically copper, springy fingers that clamp onto the expansion card’s edge connectors when the card is inserted into the slot. The edge of an expansion card has metal connectors attached that will match up to the fingers of the slot and complete the connections that connect the card to the motherboard and its bus structure through the slot.
Here are some of the major characteristics of a nic:-
MAC (Media Access Control) address :- Each NIC is physically encoded with a unique identifying address when it is manufactured. A NIC’s MAC address is used to identify it on the network.
System resources:- A NIC is configured to the computer with an IRQ, an I/O address, and a DMA channel. A NIC commonly uses IRQ3, IRQ5, or IRQ10 and an I/O address of 300h.
Transceiver type:- Some NICs are capable of attaching to more than one media type, such as UTP and coaxial. Each different cable medium requires a different type of transceiver, the device that transmits and receives data from the network.
Data bus compatibility:- NICs are designed with compatibility to a particular data bus architecture. Most newer NICs are PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect), but there are still many ISA (Industry Standard Architecture) legacy NICs still in use.
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