information about computer system
information about computer system is a high speed electronic device, which is used to perform arithmetical and logical operations. It takes input, process it and gives the output by doing specified operation into a required format.
Function of computer:-
As computer each and every electronic device has three functions.
- It takes the input
- It process the information
- It gives the output.
To give input to the computer we require different hardware components such as keyboard, mouse, joystick etc.
The information which we give to the computer to process is known as input.
The Devices, using which we send the information to the computer is known as input device. For Example: Mouse, Key Board, and Punch Cards, Joystick etc.
The devices that are used to get output from the computer are called output devices. Examples of the input device: Moniter, Printer
PARTS OF COMPUTER ( information about computer system)
It is called as visual display unit it is used to display the data as output
CPU (CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT):
It is the main component of a computer. It is called the brain of a computer. It contains three processes
- C.U (CONTROL UNIT): It is used to control the data
2. A.L.U(ARTHIMATIC LOGIC UNIT):It is used to do mathematical data. It is called arithmetic logical unit.
- M.U : ( MEMORY UNIT):It is used to store the data
MOUSE: It is an input device. It is used to store the data and select the items draw picture.
PRINTER: It is used to print the data on a paper. So it is called as an output device. There are 2 types of printers.
1. Impact printer
2. Non-Impact printer
Printers, which need stress to give the output, are called impact printers. Examples for impact printer: Dot matrix printers, Line printers, Daisy wheel printer etc.
Printers, which print to output without any stress, are called Non-Impact printers. Examples for Non-impact printer: Laser printer & Ink-jet printer.
MEMORY: It is the word used for storing the data that was entered into the computer. The data that is entered into the computer is stored inside the computer before the actual processing takes place and similarly, result produced by the computer in also stored inside before it passes to the output unit. The whole memory inside the computer is divided into two types.
2. Secondary Memory
1.PRIMARY MEMORY: Primary Memory is divided into two types:
1.RAM (Random Access Memory)
2.ROM (Read Only Memory)
During the execution of the programme the date required by the programme is stored in the RAM. It provides Volatile storage that the data are lost in the power failure so, RAM is used to store data and programmes temporarily.
In this memory basic start of proteins and Bios are permanently loaded during the manufacturing time. It provides a Non-volatile storage device. The data doesn’t get araised when the power is switched off. It can be lustrated and fresh information cannot be written into a ROM. Its information can be read only
Secondary storage device is used to store the data and programmes permanently most commonly used secondary devices are HARD DISK, FLOPPY DISK, MAGNETIC TAPE, and MAGNETIC Diskette.
- HARD DISK:
Hard disks also a secondary storage device of a computer which can store more information than floppy disk. The arms move in and out read/write the data. Each arm has two heads for accessing the two surfaces.
- FLOPPY DISK:
The floppy disk is a flexible circular shaped medium with a coating on it. A floppy disk is enclosed with a leather jacket to protect it from external damage and dust. (Data on disk is stored invisible concentric circles called tracks). Each track has a designed number. The tracks are further divided into sectors. There are different sizes of diskettes available, which are as follows:
1) 3.5” 2) 5.25” 3) 1.44” M.B( MEGA BYTE).
HISTORY OF COMPUTERS (information about computer system)
An early device was the ABACUS is a frame with beads on or the rods. The manipulating the beads invented by the Chinese and Japanese performs arthimnatic calculation since 300 B.C. later. Its use spread to parts of the world. It was the first device introduce for the concept of storage.
MANUAL CALCULATING DEVICE:
It was called as Napier bones machines. Hon Napier bones (1550-1614) invented the manual calculating device. Logarithem, which will unable to transfer multiplication and division problems of addition and subtraction.
DIFFERENCE ENGINE AND ANALYTICAL ENGINE:
In the 19th century professor, Charles Babbage came at Bridge University it is the father of modern computers (Digital Computers) desired: “Difference Engine” and “ Analytical Engine” in 1822
COMPUTER GENERATION (information about computer system)
Classification of computer is made accordingly based on the technology used in design and development of computers. These machines are classified as follows:
1st GENERATION (1946 to 1955): The first generation computers became very commercially available in the early 1950`S.Their important feature was that their design was based on vacuum tubes.
Example: E N I A C (Electronic Numerical Integrator and calculator),
U N I V A N (Universal Automatic Computer).
ADVANTAGES: This technology is made possible to digital systems.
DISADVANTAGES: 1. They are too bulky big size and occupied lot of space.
2.Generated too much of heat.
2nd GENERATION (1956 TO 1965): The invention in 1948ied to the development of the second generation of computer. Transistors replaced the de-merits completely. When compared to the former, the computer of this generation occupied lesser space and generated lesser heat.
Example: IBM (International Business Machine) 7094,1620.
Advantages: 1. Small in size.
2. Produces less heat than the first generation.
Dis-Advantages:1. Require frequent maintenance.
2. Very expensive.
3rd GENERATION (1966 to 1975): The use of the Integrated chips in the computers marked the beginning of the third generation. These are called the Mini computers because of its size. Because of further reduction in size and increases in the memory capacity. These are also called as Main Frame Computers. High-Level languages like FORTRAN (formulae Transaction), COBOL(Common business Oriented Language)
Example: IBM 360, PDP (Personal Data Processing).
Advantages: 1. Small in size when compared first and second generations.
2.Widely used for commercial applications.
3. Fast and more compact.
Dis-Advantages:1. Require air condition.
2. High advanced technology needed for the manufacturing of I.C.Chips.
4 th Generation (1976 to 1985): Due to the development of Micro Processor Chips in 1971 by Intel Corporation of U.S.A., Another breed of computers know as Micro Computers came into existence and became more popular as fourth generation computers. The personal computers developed by the multi national gain IBM in 1984 belong to the fourth generation.
Example: PC/AT (Personal Computers-advanced Technology)
PC/XT (Personal Computers –Extended Technology)
Advantages: 1.Small in size and easy to carry out.
2. Fast calculation.
3. Minimum maintenance required.
4. Used totally for general purpose.
Dis-Advantages: 1. Required Air condition.
5th Generation: The fifth generation is the super breed of computers. Artificial Intelligence is this emerging in the real world. The Electronic component used in the computers of the fifth Generation ULSI (Ultra large Scale integrated) circuits.
Examples: Super computers Robots and PC’s (personal Computers)
Advantages: 1. Very small in size and easy to carry out.
2. Very fast calculation.
3. Used for general purpose and special purpose.
Dis-Advantages: 1 Required air condition.
CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPUTER
It is one of the most important characteristics of computer. It is very fast calculating device. It maintenance the speed write from the beginning till the end.
The computer has the capacity to story large volumes of data. The concept of computer has two aspects Internet memory and external memory. The internal memory of the computer called sufficient to store large amounts of data. Hence external storage devices, which have large storage capacity than the internal memory are used to story large amounts of data.
Example: Floppy disk, hard disk, magnetic disk and magnetic tape.
The Accuracy with which a computer performs calculations or Process data is very high.
A computer can perform a particular work continuously for process together without any human introversion.
Being a machine a computer can perform a particular work without suffering form tireless and lock of key or lack of concentration. It will do the lost one with same accuracy and speed as the first one.
A computer can perform almost any type of erythematic and logical operations on the data in the main memory.
HARDWARE & SOFTWARE
Computer is divided into two types: Hardware &Software
HARDWARE: The various electronic circuits that up a computer system is called as the HARDWARE. It mainly comprises of the microprocessors, memory and the various other devices connected to the computer. Some of these components are essential know as the basic components and other components are optional.
The basic components are: 1. lnput device
2. C.P.U (Central processing unit)
3. Output device.
SOFTWARE: It is the set of programmes documents and procedures and associated with the operation of a computer system. This is known as software.
CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTER: The classification of computer is classified into two types.
They are: 1.system software. 2.application software
SYSTEM SOFTWARE: System software packaged is a collection of programmes desired to operate control and extended the processing capabilities of the computer itself.
Examples: word star, lotus, D-base, etc
APPLICATION SOFTWARE: Creating an own software by us is called as the Application software. It can also said as the application software is nothing but packages desired for a specified purpose.
Examples: Accounting packages payrolls, etc…
COMPUTER LANGUAGES: A computer languages are a user can `communicate with the computer. Some languages are given below.
1.Machine Language (low level language)
2.Assemble Language (Symbolic language)
1.MACHINE LEVEL LANGUAGE: All it is a data should be witted in binary codes (0,1). The binary code is called as the Machine code or Machine language. It is also a first Generation Language. But witting programmes in this language is very difficult.
2.ASSEMBLE LEVEL LANGUAGE: A language, which uses to code and alter numerical symbols for addresses. It is called as second-generation language. A programme known as assembler can do a programme written in Assemble language must be translated into machine language. The main advantage of assemble language is that is machine dependent. Hence programme written for one computer cannot be executed in another Assembler language.
Example: 0600, lds, 0231,etc….
3.HIGH LEVEL LANGUAGE: It is a programming language that grammatically and mathematically sentences everyday language. It is also called as third generation language. A high level language can be grouped into three board applications as follows:
- Scientific purpose- formulae transaction.
- Business purpose-Cobol (common business oriented language)
- Special purpose-basic (beginners all purpose symbolic instruction code. )
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