History of computerThe word computer comes from the Greek word “Compute” i.e. exactly meaning calculate. So, Computer is an electronic device which helps us to store and process our data or instructions at high speed with 100% accuracy. It can perform basic operations like arithmetical and logical (i.e. addition, subtraction, multiplication, comparison, etc.) and produce result according to the given instruction in a desirable form. A wide range of problems can be solved with help of computer. The problems may be related to the business, education, medical, banking, industry, development, communications, etc. A computer mainly works on the principle of Input, Process, Output and Storage (“IPOS”) cycle.
1450– Abacus – China
Abacus is the first calculating device i.e. invented by China. It is widely used in china and its Far East areas for simple commercial calculations.
1600 – Napier Bones – John Napier – England:-
John Napier developed Napier Bones. He was Scottish mathematician. Napier Bones perform simple addition and subtraction works.
1642 – Adding Machines – Blaise Pascal – France:-
The well-known French scientist and mathematician, Blaise Pascal invented the first machine, which could add or subtract, carry out digits automatically. He was 19 years old at that time.
1692 – Multiplying Machine – Gottfried Leibnitz – Germany:-
Gottfried improved upon Pascal’s machine and introduced a mechanism to carry out automatically multiplications of numbers and it also performed square root functions. He is also work with Sir Isaac Newton in developing a branch of mathematics known as calculus.
1813 – Difference Engine – Charles Babbage – England:-
In early 19th century an Englishman named Charles Babbage developed a machine named difference engine, which could perform complex calculations and print them out as well.
1863 – Analytic Engine – Charles Babbage – England:-
An Englishman Charles Babbage developed a machine named Analytic Engine. He had conceived a mechanism, which could carry out long sequence of complex calculations automatically. He was the first person to conceive of the Stored Program Concept i.e. given by “Sir John Von Neumann”. Analytic Engine has the ability to store 1000, 50-digit number in one second and multiplies 20-digit numbers in 3 minutes.
So, development for Analytic Engine Charles Babbage is recognized as “The Father of Computers”. Because Analytic Engine is a complete modern computer but technology at that time was not advanced enough to provide him with the hardware he required.
1930 – Turing Machine – Alan Turing – England:-
An Englishman developed a machine named Turing Machine. It was hypothetical general purpose computing machine. Turing Machine published a book named “Computer Machinery & Intelligence”, in which he proposed Turing test of Artificial Intelligence that test, is still used by scientists. Turing test basically explains that computer is capable of interacting with user.
1939 – ABC(Atanasoff Berry Computer) – John Atanasoff :-
Professor John Atanasoff is led to the development of an electronic computer. He work with a graduate student Clifford Berry built an electronic calculating machine that could solve the problem of equations. ABC was first special purpose, electronic computer.
1943 – ENIAC – Harvard University – USA:-
ENIAC is stand for Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator. It performs all calculations that have a small pocket calculator of today. It is used vacuum tubes and it was able to do 300 multiplications per seconds. It’s weighed nearly 5 tons and occupied space equivalent to 2 big rooms.
1947 – EDSAC – Cambridge University – England :-
EDSAC is stand for Electronic Delayed Storage And Calculator. It proposed the use of binary numbers and the internal storage of instructions in digital form.
1951 – UNIVAC – USA:-
UNIVAC is stand for Universal Automatic Computer. Sperry Rand Corporation of USA introduces it. It was the first commercial automatic computer of the world.
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