History of computer Network
History of computer network technology. The merging of computer and communication has a profound influence on the way systems are organized. the concept of computer center as a room with a large computer to which the users bring their work for processing is now obsolete. the old model of a single computer servicing all the computation needs of an organization has been replaced by the one in which a large system of separate but interconnected computers do the job. these system are called computer networks. The two computers are said to be interconnected if they are able to exchange information. the connection between the computers need not be only via a copper wire of fibber optics or microwaves. a communication satellite can be used for networking the computers.
History of compute Networks:-
1897 :- CRT (cathode Ray Tube ) credited to Braun.
1990-1915 :- Teletype (Telegraph 5 Bit)
1915-1920 :- ARQ (Automatic Repeat Request) credited to Van Duuren.
1930-1940 :- ENIAC credited to DOD /MIT.
1950s :SAGE (Semi-Automatic Ground Environment) MIT 1950s.
1960s:- Transistorized Computers 2nd Generation.
1961 :- CTSS (Compatible Time Sharing System) Credited to Cobato/MIT.
1965:- Auto Equalization Techniques of phone lines credited of lucky at all.
1966:- Fibers Glass credited to Kao & Hockman.
1967:- Integrated Circuits Computers 3rd Generation.
1968:- Carterfone FCC Decision in.
1969:- A group of DoD researchers linked four computers at UCLA, SRI university of Utah and the UCSB. they created a network to communicate with one another about government projects. The network was part of the DoD’s Advanced Researches project agency and was duded ARPAnet .
1972:- More than 50 universities and military agencies were linked together on the network. For a short period of time, it was a top secret defense project, ensuring that computers could talk to each other in the event of a nuclear attack. The communication system between the sites was called email and was invented by ray to Millstone of bolt, be ank and Newman.
1973 :- the defense project links were to extended to norway and england.
1974:- transmission control protocol (TCP) was published and the military and educational links diverged. organizations like NASA began to experiment with computer networks and the networks began to interconnected and the name internet was coined .
1976;- the queen sends an email from RSRE malvern.
1983:- TCP/IP became the protocol standard for ARPAnet. Scott Fahlman invents the smiley to convey emotions in email.
1984:- In the US, the NSF built high speed, long distance lines that connected supercomputer sites across the USA. these eventually replaced the original ARPAnet. In time, NSFnet was joined by other networks at dozen of universities, research laboratories and high-tech companies. the system for assigning names to computers on the network was introduced – DNS . JANet was launched to connect British university.
1986:-the NSF established its own faster network NSFnet and network news transfer protocol (NNTP) was introduced making inline interactive discussion a reality backbone speed was 56 kbps.
1987:- 1000th RFC and 10,000th host.
1988:- Robert Tappan Morris released the first internet worm and CERT was set up in response to this. backbone speed upgraded to 1.544 mbps. IRC developed.
1989:- 100,000the host cuckoo’s Egg released by Cliff Stoll telling true story of east german cracker accessing US installations.
1990:- ARPAnet ceased to exist and the internet effectively took its role.
1991:- Gopher, a software program for retrieving information from servers on the internet was made available by the university of minnesota. the US government announced that it no longer intended to restrict activity on the internet to research. This policy shift was sufficient for 12 companies to cooperate and produce CIX. phil zimmerman released PGP. backbone speed upgrade to 44,736 Mbps.
1992:- the world wide web became a possibility after CERN, in switzerland released hypertext. 1,000,000th host. The author gets his first dialup email account with demon internet (November 1992)
1993:- mosaic a software program to browse web sites written by marc andreesen was released followed by netscape.
1994:- shopping malls arrive on the internet. the UK treasury goes on the line and the first cyber bank opens. the first banner adverts appeared for zima a drink and AT&T.
1995:- Traditional dial-up services (AOL, CompuServe etc) start to provide dial-up services the vatican goes on line. a number of internet companies go public. Netscape leads the field with the largest ever IPO on NASDAQ. DEC launches AltVista, which claims to index every HTML page there is Jeff bezon launches amazon.com. eBay is launched.
1996:- 9272 organizations find themselves unlisted after the Intel NIC drop their name services as a result of not having paid their domain name fee. various ISP s suffer extended services outages, bringing into question whether they will be able to handle the growing number of users . AOL (19 hours), Net-com (13 hours). AT&T World Net (28 hours -email only) china requires user of the internet to register with the police. Saudi Arabia restricts use to universities and hospitals. Domain name tv.com sold to CENT for US$ 15,000. backbone speed upgraded to 622 Mbps.
1997:- 2000th RFC. 16 MILLION hosts. 1000000th domain name resisted (March 6th for bonny vies cottage furniture company)
1998:- 3,000,000th domain name registered. US postal authorities allow purchase of postage stamp on line for downloading and printing. Gigabit Ethernet standard ratified. Google is launched.
1999:- First fill services bank opens on the internet ( First internet bank Indiana). First forget web page. looking like bloom berg raises the shares of a small company by 31% ( 7th april ). . Melissa strikes. 5000000th domain name registered. First cyberwar starts between sebia and kosovo. Shawn fanning launches napstes record labels ate furious .
2000:- 10,000,000th domain name registed, french courts require that “hate” memorabilia for sale on yahoo’s auction site must be removed. Gnutella is launched. ICANN Selects new top label domains. backbone is upgraded to ipv6.
2001:- Forwarding email become illegal in Australia (Digital Agenda Act). Napster forced to suspend services after legal action. Taliban bans the internet in Afghanistan. Nimda released on the internet.
2002:- Distributed denial of services attack hits 13 DNS root servers, CAUSING NATIONAL Security concerns.
2003:- The first official Swiss online election takes place in Anieres ( 7 JAN) , SQL Slammer (goes round the world in 10 minutes. and takes out 3 of the 13 DNS Servers) followed by SoBig.F (19 August) and blaster (11 August).
2004:- Lycos Europe releases a screen server to help fight spam by keeping spam servers busy with request ( 1 December) the service is discontinued within a few days after backbone provides block access to the download site and the service causes some servers to crash.
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