Definition of Operating SystemAn operating system is system software. It’s manage software and hardware. An operating System (OS) is an intermediary between users and computer hardware. It provides users an environment in which a user can execute programs conveniently and efficiently. In technical terms, it is software which manages hardware. An operating System controls the allocation of resources and services such as memory, processors, devices and information.
Now many view it as dated and badly in need of a rewrite rather than a simple upgrade. Windows 1995 is the most popular operating system in the world. But this operating system is in many ways a copy of the Mac OS, less the Mac’s character. Many programmers and computer enthusiasts enjoy the command-line interface power of UNIX. But UNIX isn’t nearly intuitive enough for the average end user. What users really want is an operating system that has an easy-to-use graphical user interface, takes advantage of the power of today’s fast microprocessor chips, and is unencumbered with the burdens of backward compatibility.
Definition Of Operating System:-
An operating system is a program that acts as an interface between the user and the computer hardware and controls the execution of all kinds of programs.
Following are some of important functions of an operating System:-
- Memory Management
- Processor Management
- Device Management
- File Management
- Control over system performance
- Job accounting
- Error detecting aids
- Coordination between other software and users
Memory management refers to management of Primary Memory or Main Memory. Main memory is a large array of words or bytes where each word or byte has its own address.
Main memory provides a fast storage that can be access directly by the CPU. For a program to be executed, it must in the main memory. Operating System does the following activities for Memory management.
- Keeps tracks of primary memory i.e. what part of it are in use by whom, what part are not in use.
- In multiprogramming, OS decides which process will get memory when and how much.
- Allocates the memory when the process requests it to do so.
- De-allocates the memory when the process no longer needs it or has been terminated.
OS decides which process gets the processor when and how much time in multiprogramming environment. This function is called process scheduling. Operating System does the following activities for processor management.
- Keeps tracks of processor and status of process. Program responsible for this task is known as traffic controller.
- Allocates the processor (CPU) to a process.
- De-allocates processor when processor is no longer required.
OS manages device communication via their respective drivers. Operating System does the following activities for device management.
- Keeps tracks of all devices.
- Decides which process gets the device when and for how much time.
- Allocates the device in the efficient way.
- De-allocates devices.
A file system is normally organized into directories for easy navigation and usage. These directories may contain files and other directions. Following activities for file management.
- Keeps track of information, location, uses, status etc.
- Decides who gets the resources.
- Allocates the resources.
- De-allocates the resources.
Other Important Activities:-
Security:- By means of password and similar other techniques, preventing unauthorized access to programs and data
Control over system performance:- Recording delays between request for a service and response from the system.
Job accounting:- Keeping track of time and resources used by various jobs and users.
Error detecting aids:- Production of dumps, traces, error messages and other debugging and error detecting aids.
Coordination between other software and users:- Coordination and assignment of compilers, interpreters, assemblers and other software to the various users of the computer systems.
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