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Cryptocurrency :- Cryptocurrency started in the 1980s with David Chaum’s work. He is commonly referred to as the inventor of secure digital cash for his paper on cryptographic primitives of blind signatures. In this paper, Chaum proposed a novel cryptographic scheme to blind the content of a message before it is signed, so that the signer cannot determine the content. These blind signatures can be publicly verified just like a regular digital signature. Chaum’s proposed digital cash approach allows users to spend a digital currency in such a way that it is untraceable by another party. improved the idea by allowing offline transactions and by adding double-spending detection mechanisms. Nevertheless, the system requires trusted parties for issuing and clearance of electronic cash. To commercialize his ideas of digital cash, Chaum founded DigiCash in 1990. This first generation of cryptographic currencies failed to reach a broad audience despite various commercialization efforts.

Read:-Types of hacking


Cryptocurrency :-

Before the first decentralized cryptocurrency, Bitcoin, and its successors emerged, a number of approaches that improved on the original idea of David Chaum were proposed. These concepts represent incremental improvements, but as they still contained centralized elements, they do not qualify as completely decentralized currencies.

b-money:- In 1998, Wei Dai proposed b-money , an anonymous and distributed electronic cash system. In his proposal, he described two protocols based on the assumption that an untraceable network exists where senders and receivers are identified only by digital pseudonyms such as their public keys, and that every message is signed by its sender and encrypted to the receiver. B-money also allowed the creation of money based on previously unsolved cryptographic puzzles.

bit gold:- In 1998, Nick Szabo designed a new digital currency called bit gold. His system also relied on cryptographic puzzles which, after being solved, were sent to a Byzantine fault-tolerant public registry and assigned to the public key of the solver. This allowed network consensus over new coins to be obtained. To address the problem of double-spending without a central authority, Szabo’s scheme was designed to mimic the trust characteristics of gold. In 2002, Szabo also presented a theory of collectibles based on the origins of money .

Hashcash:- Adam Back proposed Hashcash , a proof-of-work (PoW) system based on cryptographic hash functions to derive probabilistic proof of computational work as an authentication mechanism. The requirements of this system were that, on the one hand, it should be hard to find a valid solution, but on the other, it should be easy to verify any given solution. With Hashcash, the purpose of the PoW was to ensure that it was computationally hard for a spammer to transmit mails over an anonymous mail relay. Since the identity of the sender should be protected, no traditional authentication checks are possible in such a scenario. Therefore, the mail server required the solution to a computational challenge as an authentication method for accepting the message for relaying. In the case of Hashcash, this was realized via an additional e-mail header. Back’s PoW scheme was conceptually reused in Bitcoin mining

.RPOW:- Based on previous work, Hal Finney presented the first currency system based on a reusable proof-of-work (RPOW) and Szabo’s theory of collectibles  in 2004. Similar to Szabo’s bit gold, Finney’s scheme introduced token money that was aligned with the concept of gold value. Later, after the launch of Bitcoin, Hal Finney became the first user of this new distributed cryptocurrency after Satoshi Nakamoto. He received a Bitcoin transaction from Bitcoin’s creator Satoshi Nakamoto.

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